Heracleum mantegazzianum commonly referred to as Giant Hogweed is a monocarpic flowering plant of the Apiaceae family. Hogweed is from the western Caucasus region, Eurasia. It was first introduced to England as an ornamental plant in the 19th century and has spread to other areas in Western Europe, the United States, and Canada.
Scientific name: Heracleum mantegazzianum Distribution: Europe, America, Canada Danger level: Medium The reaction caused: Hogweed sap is phototoxic and can cause phytophotodermatitis in humans. The effect can make the skin blister and leave scars. This serious reaction is caused by furanocoumarin found in the leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and fruit.
Monkshood is a very poisonous flowering plant species of the genus Aconitum, the Ranunculaceae family. This plant is endemic to western and central Europe. Monkshood is very poisonous to humans, both in consumption and in direct contact with the skin.
Scientific name: Aconitum napellus Distribution: Europe, Asia, America Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: If humans consume parts of this plant will cause symptoms of fatal poisoning, less than one hour in the future. Initial signs are gastrointestinal such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tingling, numbness in the
mouth and face, and burning sensation in the stomach. If consumed in excessive amounts, it is probable that the consumer will experience death within the next 2-6 hours.
3. Castor Bean
Castor bean including wild plants that generally grow wild in secondary forests and vacant land that is slightly damp. This tree has been cultivated in many countries, especially in Indonesia to be processed into oil.
But what is dangerous about this tree is the seeds in the fruit. Castor bean seeds can cause adult humans to die if they consume 10-15 seeds, while children can die with only 5-8 seeds.
Scientific name: Ricinus communis Distribution: Asia, America Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: Castor bean contains a substance named Ricin in every part of the tree, especially in the seeds of the fruit. Ricin is a deadly poison. The fatal effect is when humans consume the fruit seeds, which if it is consumed 10-15 eggs can cause death.
4. Spotted Cowbane
Cicuta maculata is a highly poisonous flower species native to North America, from northern Canada to southern Mexico. Spotted Cowbane is considered the most poisonous plant in North America.
Scientific name: Cicuta maculata Distribution: America, Canada, Mexico Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: The poison will react fatally when this plant part is consumed. The poison from Spotted Cowbane can cause painful and deadly seizures.
Amethyst is a plant in the Nightshade family that originated in Central America and has been distributed to many regions of the world.
Today, amethyst grows wild in all tropical regions of the world, where it can be found easily on the edge of village roads, gardens, vacant land, and river banks.
Scientific name: Datura stramonium Distribution: Worldwide Danger level: Medium The reaction caused: All parts of the amethyst plant contain substances called tropane alkaloid atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine which are very dangerous. It is classified as delirian or anticholinergic. These toxic substances can cause hallucinations, convulsions, even coma even if only consume one or two leaves.
6. Gympie Gympie
Gympie Gympie or Moonlighter is a plant native to the rainforest in northeast Australia. This tree is covered in feathers that contain neurotoxins and will react when touched. This is the most poisonous plant in Australia.
Scientific name: Dendrocnide moroides Distribution: Australia Danger level: Medium The reaction caused: Direct contact with leaves or twigs can cause goosebumps. Its poisonous feathers will enter through the pores and cause a very painful burning sensation. The worst effects of heat from touching these plants take place in 1-2 days. And will improve with time.
7. Doll Eyes
Mata Mata or White Baneberry is a flowering plant species in the genus Actaea, from the Ranunculaceae family. This plant originates from eastern North America, eastern United States, eastern Canada, and Midwestern.
Scientific name: Actaea pachypoda Distribution: America, Canada Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: The fruit of the puppet’s eyes and all parts of the plant are considered poisonous. The fruit is the part that contains the most cardiogenic toxins, which can create a direct sedative effect on human heart muscle tissue. Swallowing the fruit can cause the heart to stop beating and death.
Birthwort is a plant from the family Aristolochiaceae which is a plant native to Europe. Formerly this plant was used as a medicinal plant even though it is poisonous, and now it is planted only to avoid it from extinction because it is considered a heritage plant.
Scientific name: Aristolochia clematitis Distribution: Europe Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: This plant has a poison called aristolochic acid, and it can cause kidney failure and urinary tract disorders if the plant parts are consumed by humans. The effects of the poison have been recognized to be very dangerous in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Croatia.
Mancinella is a species of flowering plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Originally stretched from southern North America to northern South America. Currently, the Manchineel tree is listed as one of the most dangerous trees in the world. Manchineel trees can be found on the seashores and in marshes where it grows usually adjacent to mangrove forests.
Scientific name: Hippomane mancinella Distribution: Caribbean, Bahamas, Mexico, America Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: All parts of the Manchineel tree contain dangerous poisons, some of the poisons have not been identified. The sap contains phorbol substances, bullous dermatitis, and acute keratoconjunctivitis. Its toxins can cause fatal irritation to the skin, its worst effects can cause severe dermatitis and allergies, and possible corneal epithelial defects if exposed to the eye.
It is known that the sap can also damage the car paint. Burning Manchineel trees and their smoke on the eyes can cause serious eye injury.
Foxglove or Women’s Gloves are species of flowering plants native to Europe. Foxglove is also naturalized in North America and several other subtropical climates.
Scientific name: Digitalis purpurea Distribution: Europe Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: Symptoms of poisoning from this plant include low pulse, nausea, vomiting, loss of control, heart problems, and the worst can cause cardiac arrest and death.
11. Deadly Nightshade
Deadly Nightshade is known as Belladonna or Nightshade which is a deadly poisonous plant species. It is a plant native to Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. Its distribution extends to England, Ukraine and Iran. This is also naturalized in Canada and the United States.
This plant has a long history and has been used as a medicine, cosmetics, and poison. The ancient Romans used parts of the Nightshade plant as poison. It is said that the Roman empress, Livia Drusilla and Agrippina the Younger, is said to have used Nightshade for murder.
Scientific name: Atropa belladonna Distribution: Europe, Africa, Asia, Britain, Ukraine, Iran, Canada, America Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: Nightshade leaves contain tropane alkaloids, and are highly toxic if ingested or consumed by humans. Toxins include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine which cause delirium and hallucinations.
12. Toxic Hemlock
Toxic Hemlock is a poisonous plant from the Apiaceae family. It is native to European and North African plants that can live in various environments. Hemlock is widely naturalized outside of its natural habitats, such as in North and South America, Australia, West Asia, and New Zealand.
Scientific name: Conium maculatum Distribution: Europe, Africa, America, Asia, Australia Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: Toxic Hemlock is known to be poisonous because it contains alkaloids which include piperidine, alkaloid coniine, n-methylconiine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, and gamma-coniceine (g-coniceïne). The poison acts directly on the human central nervous system through its inhibitory action on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The potential for poison is very high, consuming parts of the Toxic Hemlock plant causes respiratory collapse and death.
13. White Snakeroot
White Snakeroot or Richweed is a poisonous plant in the Asteraceae family native to eastern and central North America. This species is adaptive to different growth conditions, it is found growing in secondary forests, shrubs, and open land.
Scientific name: Ageratina altissima Distribution: American Danger level: Medium The reaction caused: White Snakeroot contains tremetol toxin when plants are consumed by livestock, the meat will be contaminated with the poison. When meat from livestock that has been contaminated with poison is consumed by humans, the poison can spread to the human body. If consumed in large quantities, it can cause tremetol poisoning.
14. Jequirity Bean
Jequirity bean is a popular anti-thrush medicinal plant. Jequirity bean leaves, when combined with betel leaves, are powerful traditional medicine for treating thrush. Although effective for traditional medicine, certain parts of this plant are poisonous and quite dangerous for humans.
Scientific name: Abrus precatorius Distribution: Belize, Caribbean, Hawaii, Polynesia, America Danger level: Medium The reaction caused: The jequirity bean seeds are poisonous, and their effects are similar to those of the Castor bean (Ricinus communis) tree, the Ricin substance. These substances can cause the same reaction if the seeds are
ingested or consumed by humans.
15. Angel’s Trumpets
Angel’s trumpets are a genus that consists of seven species of flowering plants in the Solanaceae family. They are small trees or shrubs with pendulous flowers and do not have thorns on their fruit. Angel’s trumpets are large and fragrant. This plant is often mistaken with Amethyst (Datura), although they are both different genera, both are equally poisonous.
Scientific name: Brugmansia Distribution: Europe, America, Asia Danger level: Very dangerous The reaction caused: The trumpet flower contains the same tropane alkaloid as the Deadly Nightshade tree which can kill humans if consumed in excessive amounts.
Of the 15 dangerous and poisonous plants above, may one or more of them grow around you.